The Crown of Monomakh is the most ancient monument in the Armoury regalia collection.  The crown is dated by the ХIIIth-XIVth centuries. It consists of eight golden plaques, adorned with filigree, pearls and bright gems. Up till now there is no common idea of where it had been executed. The shape of the crown and motifs of the filigree ornament give evidence of Oriental origin. The most probable places of execution are Byzantium and the Middle Asia.

In the 1328 Testament of Ivan the Kalita (Money bag) for the first time a ceremonial headdress – "golden cap" – was mentioned. The cap was mentioned in all the princes' testaments of the XIVth-XVth centuries. It became an eminent part of the Moscow Princes' property and was transmitted from  a father to the elder son. The "golden cap" is traditionally considered to be "The Crown of Monomakh".

The story of the Monomakh's Crown was created in the second part of the XVth century. That time, after the fall of Byzantium in 1453, Moscow started to pretend to the role of the new Orthodox center. According to the story, in the XIIth century, the Kiev Prince Vladimir Monomakh received a royal Crown from Byzantine Emperor Constantinos Monomachos. From Kiev Princes the Crown of Monomakh was transmitted to Vladimir Princes and later to Moscow Princes.

Since 1547, the year of crowning of the first Russian Tsar Ivan Vasilievich (the Terrible), to the late XVIIth century, the Crown of Monomakh was used in crowning of all the Russian rulers. Ivan Alexeevich was the last Tsar to be crowned by the Crown of Monomakh in 1682.

In XVIIIth – XIXth centuries, as the setting for reigning ceremonial was replaced by coronation, where barmas were replaced by a mantle and the ancient royal crown by a diadem (coronal), the Crown of Monomakh played a particular role. It was brought out on a pillow "as the main memorability of Royal dignity".