Till the beginning of the XVIIth century the Russian people wore national costumes. In 1700-1701 Peter the Great issued an edict to replace traditional Russian clothing with European fashion. Long Russian garments gave place to short kaftans and camisoles. In addition to them male dress of the first half of the XVIIIth century comprises breeches and shirt trimmed with lace, as well as stockings, shoes, hat and other accessories. Costumes for Peter I have been executed upon west-european model by makers from the German Quarter (Nemetskaya sloboda) as well as by tailors of the Moscow Kremlin workshops; furthermore, garments were purchased for the Tsar during his trip to West European countries in 1697-1698.

Traditional bonnets (volosnik), which covered the back of women's head hiding their hair, were no longer used because of variety of coiffures required for European dress.

The coronation dress, belonged to the Russian Empresses Catherine I, was made in the style fashionable in Europe at the beginning of the XVIIIth century. It has a close-fitting bodice, typical of female dress throughout the XVIIIth century, a low-cut neckline, very small short sleeves and a wide bell-shaped skirt. In order to produce this bell shape, whalebone hoops were sewn into the underskirt. This type of skirt remained in fashion until the 1760s and was known as a pannier skirt.