In 1816 the museum exposition was open for visitors through the efforts of the outstanding statesman, senator and patron of arts N. Yusupov. Two-storied building of the Armoury Chamber includes the archives, depository and model of the palace — the unrealized project, designed by V. Bazhenov for Catherine II. The main exposition was placed on the second floor and incorporated state regalia collection, the exposure complex of the «crowns of the conquered reigns» (Crowns of Kazan, of Siberian, etc.), ambassadorial gifts and armoury collection (swords, shields, armours, flags).

According to the highest Decree of Emperor Nicholas I, on August, 22, 1831, the name of the museum was changed to "The Moscow Armoury Chamber". In 1838-1851, a new palace complex in «national Russian» style was erected in the Kremlin on the project of K.A. Ton. It included the Grand Kremlin Palace, building of Apartments and more convenient and significant building of the museum — the Moscow Armoury Chamber. In 1858, the Rules on management of the Moscow Armoury Chamber, were authorized. In 1852 the museum exposition was placed in the new building of the Armoury Chamber, which became the representational constituent of the whole Grand Kremlin Palace's complex as the Imperial treasure-house.

Fyodor Alexandrovich Ushakov, secret councilor and general major, was appointed the first Director of the Armoury Chamber.

Curators of the museum were responsible for the condition and preservation of the museum collections. About ten years continued the work on scientific studying the museum exhibits and edition of the multivolume Inventory (1884-1893). The authority of employees of the Armoury Chamber among researchers was very high. A.E. Viktorov, G.D. Filimonov, А.М. Pavlinov, V.K. Trutovsky, A.I. Uspensky were members of the Imperial Moscow Archeological Society. V.K. Trutovsky was a chairman of the Moscow Numismatic Society.